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Four sorts of Arguments. First, Ad Verecundiam.
      §19. Before we quit this Subject, it may be worth our while a little
to reflect on four sorts of Arguments, that Men in their Reasonings
— 686 —
with others do ordinarily make use of, to prevail on their Assent;
or at least so to awe them, as to silence their Opposition.
      First, The first is, to alledge the Opinions of Men, whose Parts,
Learning, Eminency, Power, or some other cause has gained a
name, and settled their Reputation in the common esteem with
some kind of Authority. When Men are established in any kind of
Dignity, ’tis thought a breach of Modesty for others to derogate
any way from it, and question the Authority of Men, who are in
possession of it. This is apt to be censured, as carrying with it too
much of Pride, when a Man does not readily yield to the Determin-
ation of approved Authors, which is wont to be received with
respect and submission by others: and ’tis looked upon as insolence,
for a Man to set up, and adhere to his own Opinion, against the
current Stream of Antiquity; or to put it in the balance against that
of some learned Doctor, or otherwise approved Writer. Whoever
backs his Tenets with such Authorities, thinks he ought thereby to
carry the Cause, and is ready to style it Impudence in any one,
who shall stand out against them. This, I think, may be called
Argumentum ad Verecundiam.
Locke Hum IV, 17, §19, pp. 685-686