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Incogitative Being cannot produce a Cogitative.
      §10. If then there must be something eternal, let us see what sort
of Being it must be. And to that, it is very obvious to Reason, that
it must necessarily be a cogitative Being. For it is as impossible to
conceive, that ever bare incogitative Matter should produce a
thinking intelligent Being, as that nothing should of it self produce
Matter. Let us suppose any parcel of Matter eternal, great or
small, we shall find it, in it self, able to produce nothing. For
Example; let us suppose the Matter of the next Pebble, we meet
with, eternal, closely united, and the parts firmly at rest together,
if there were no other Being in the World, Must it not eternally
remain so, a dead inactive Lump? Is it possible to conceive it can
add Motion to it self, being purely Matter, or produce any thing?
Matter then, by its own Strength, cannot produce in it self so
much as Motion: the Motion it has, must also be from Eternity, or
else be produced, and added to Matter by some other Being more
powerful than Matter; Matter, as is evident, having not Power to
produce Motion in it self. But let us suppose Motion eternal too;
yet Matter, incogitative Matter and Motion, whatever changes it
might produce of Figure and Bulk, could never produce Thought:
Knowledge will still be as far beyond the Power of Motion and
Matter to produce, as Matter is beyond the Power of nothing, or non-
entity to produce. And I appeal to every one’s own Thoughts, whether
he cannot as easily conceive Matter produced by nothing, as Thought
to be produced by pure Matter, when before there was no such
thing as Thought, or an intelligent Being existing. Divide Matter
into as minute parts as you will, (which we are apt to imagine a sort
of spiritualizing, or making a thinking thing of it,) vary the Figure
and Motion of it, as much as you please, a Globe, Cube, Cone,
Prism, Cylinder, etc. whose Diameters are but 1000000th part of a
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Gry A Gry is 1/10 of a line, a line 1/10 of an inch, an inch 1/10 of a philosophical foot, a philosophical foot 1/3 of a pendulum, whose Diadroms, in the latitude of 45 degrees, are each equal to one Second of time, or 1/60 of a minute. I have affectedly made use of this measure here, and the parts of it, under a decimal division with names to them; because, I think, it would be of general convenience, that this should be the common measure in the Commonwealth of Letters will operate no otherwise upon other Bodies of proportion-
able Bulk, than those of an inch or foot Diameter; and you may as
rationally expect to produce Sense, Thought, and Knowledge, by
putting together in a certain Figure and Motion, gross Particles of
Matter, as by those that are the very minutest, that do any where
exist. They knock, impell, and resist one another, just as the
greater do, and that is all they can do. So that if we will suppose
nothing first, or eternal; Matter can never begin to be: If we suppose
bare Matter, without Motion, eternal; Motion can never begin to be.
If we suppose only Matter and Motion first, or eternal; Thought can
never begin to be. For it is impossible to conceive that Matter
either with or without Motion could have originally in and from it
self Sense, Perception, and Knowledge, as is evident from hence,
that then Sense, Perception, and Knowledge must be a property
eternally inseparable from Matter and every Particle of it. Not to
add, that though our general or specifick conception of Matter
makes us speak of it as one thing, yet really all Matter is not one
individual thing, neither is there any such thing existing as one
material Being or one single Body that we know or can conceive.
And therefore if Matter were the eternal first cogitative Being,
there would not be one eternal infinite cogitative Being, but an
infinite number of eternal finite cogitative Beings, independent
one of another, of limited force, and distinct thoughts, which could
never produce that order, harmony, and beauty which is to be found
in Nature. Since therefore whatsoever is the first eternal Being must
necessarily be cogitative; And whatsoever is first of all Things,
must necessarily contain in it, and actually have, at least, all the
Perfections that can ever after exist; nor can it ever give to another
any perfection that it hath not, either actually in it self, or at least
in a higher degree; It necessarily follows, that the first eternal Being
cannot be Matter.
Locke Hum IV, 10, §10, pp. 623-624