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Instance Man and Palfry.
      §6. Every Man is an Animal, or living Body, is as certain a Pro-
position as can be; but no more conducing to the Knowledge of
Things, than to say, A Palfry is an ambling Horse, or a neighing
ambling Animal, both being only about the signification of Words,
and make me know but this; That Body, Sense, and Motion, or power
of Sensation and Moving, are three of those Ideas, that I always com-
prehend and signify by the word Man; and where they are not to
be found together, the name Man belongs not to that Thing: And
so of the other, that Body, Sense, and a certain way of going, with a
certain kind of Voice, are some of those Ideas which I always compre-
hend, and signify by the word Palfry; and when they are not to be
found together, the name Palfry belongs not to that thing. ’Tis
just the same, and to the same purpose, when any term standing for
any one or more of the simple Ideas, that altogether make up that
complex Idea which is called a Man, is affirmed of the term Man: v.g.
suppose a Roman, signified by the word Homo: all these distinct
Ideas united in one subject, Corporeitas, Sensibilitas, Potentia se movendi,
Rationalitas, Risibilitas, he might, no doubt, with great certainty,
universally affirm one, more, or all of these together of the word
Homo, but did no more than say, that the word Homo, in his Country,
comprehended in its signification, all these Ideas. Much like a
Romance Knight, who by the word Palfry, signified these Ideas; Body
of a certain figure, fourlegg’d, with sense, motion, ambling, neighing,
white, used to have a Woman on his back, might with the same certainty,
— 614 —
universally affirm also any, or all of these of the word Palfry: but
did thereby teach no more, but that the word Palfry, in his, or
Romance Language, stood for all these, and was not to be applied
to any thing, where any of these was wanting. But he that shall
tell me, that in whatever thing Sense, Motion, Reason, and Laughter,
were united, that Thing had actually a notion of GOD, or would be
cast into a sleep by Opium, made indeed an instructive Proposition:
because neither having the notion of GOD, nor being cast into sleep by
Opium, being contained in the Idea signified by the Word Man, we
are by such Propositions taught something more than barely what
the word Man stands for: And therefore the Knowledge contained
in it, is more than verbal.
Locke Hum IV, 8, §6, pp. 613-614