— 481 —
      §11. If the signification of the Names of mixed Modes are un-
certain, because there be no real Standards existing in Nature, to
which those Ideas are referred, and by which they may be adjusted,
the Names of Substances are of a doubtful signification, for a contrary
reason, viz. because the Ideas, they stand for, are supposed conform-
able to the reality of Things, and are referred to Standards made by
Nature. In our Ideas of Substances we have not the liberty as in
mixed Modes, to frame what Combinations we think fit, to be the
characteristical Notes, to rank and denominate Things by. In these
we must follow Nature, suit our complex Ideas to real Existences,
and regulate the signification of their Names by the Things them-
selves, if we will have our Names to be the signs of them, and stand
for them. Here, ’tis true, we have Patterns to follow; but Patterns,
that will make the signification of their names very uncertain: For
Names must be of a very unsteady and various meaning, if the Ideas
— 482 —
they stand for, be referred to Standards without us, that either cannot
be known at all, or can be known but imperfectly and uncertainly.
Locke Hum III, 9, §11, pp. 481-482