— 467 —
      §45. These Words, Kinneah and Niouph, by degrees grew into
common use; and then the case was somewhat alter’d. Adam’s
Children had the same Faculties, and thereby the same Power that
he had, to make what complex Ideas of mixed Modes they pleased
in their own Minds; to abstract them, and make what Sounds, they
pleased, the signs of them: But the use of Names being to make our
Ideas within us known to others, that cannot be done, but when the
same Sign stands for the same Idea in two, who would communi-
cate their Thoughts, and Discourse together. Those therefore of
Adam’s Children, that found these two Words, Kinneah and Niouph,
in familiar use, could not take them for insignificant sounds: but
must needs conclude, they stood for something, for certain Ideas,
abstract Ideas, they being general Names, which abstract Ideas were
the Essences of the Species distinguished by those Names. If there-
fore they would use these Words, as Names of Species already
establish’d and agreed on, they were obliged to conform the Ideas,
in their Minds, signified by these Names, to the Ideas, that they
stood for in other Men’s Minds, as to their Patterns and Arche-
types; and then indeed their Ideas of these complex Modes were
liable to be inadequate, as being very apt (especially those that
consisted of Combinations of many simple Ideas) not to be exactly
conformable to the Ideas in other Men’s Minds, using the same
— 468 —
Names; though for this, there be usually a Remedy at Hand, which
is, to ask the meaning of any word, we understand not, of him that
uses it: it being as impossible, to know certainly, what the Words
Jealousy and Adultery (which I think answer QNAH and NAWR)
stand for in another Man’s Mind, with whom I would discourse
about them; as it was impossible, in the beginning of Language, to
know what Kinneah and Niouph stood for in another Man’s Mind,
without Explication, they being voluntary Signs in every one.
Locke Hum III, 6, §45, pp. 467-468