— 365 —
Defaults which make Confusion.       §7. The Defaults which usually occasion this Confusion, I think, are
chiefly these following.
First. Complex Ideas made up of too few simple ones.       First, When any complex Idea (for ’tis complex Ideas that are most
liable to confusion) is made up of too small a number of simple Ideas, and
such only as are common to other Things, whereby the differences,
that make it deserve a different Name, are left out. Thus he, that
has an Idea made up of barely the simple ones of a Beast with Spots,
has but a confused Idea of a Leopard, it not being thereby sufficiently
distinguished from a Lynx, and several other sorts of Beasts that
are spotted. So that such an Idea, though it hath the peculiar Name
Leopard, is not distinguishable from those designed by the Names
Lynx, or Panther, and may as well come under the Name Lynx, as
Leopard. How much the custom of defining of Words by general
terms, contributes to make the Ideas we would express by them,
confused and undetermined, I leave others to consider. This is
evident, that confused Ideas are such as render the Use of Words
uncertain, and take away the benefit of distinct Names. When the
Ideas, for which we use different terms, have not a difference answer-
able to their distinct Names, and so cannot be distinguished by
them, there it is that they are truly confused.
Locke Hum II, 29, §7, p. 365