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Idea of spiritual Substances, as clear as of bodily Substances.       §15. Besides the complex Ideas we have of material sensible
Substances, of which I have last spoken, by the simple Ideas we have
taken from those Operations of our own Minds, which we experi-
ment daily in our selves, as Thinking, Understanding, Willing,
Knowing, and Power of beginning Motion, etc. co-existing in some
Substance, we are able to frame the complex Idea of an immaterial
Spirit. And thus by putting together the Ideas of Thinking, Perceiv-
ing, Liberty, and Power of moving themselves and other things,
we have as clear a perception, and notion of immaterial Substances,
as we have of material. For putting together the Ideas of Thinking
and Willing, or the Power of moving or quieting corporeal Motion,
joined to Substance, of which we have no distinct Idea, we have the
Idea of an immaterial Spirit; and by putting together the Ideas of
coherent solid parts, and a power of being moved, joined with Sub-
stance, of which likewise we have no positive Idea, we have the Idea
of Matter. The one is as clear and distinct an Idea, as the other: The
Idea of Thinking, and moving a Body, being as clear and distinct
Ideas, as the Ideas of Extension, Solidity, and being moved. For our
Idea of Substance, is equally obscure, or none at all, in both; it is
but a supposed, I know not what, to support those Ideas, we call
Accidents. It is for want of reflection, that we are apt to think, that
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our Senses shew us nothing but material things. Every act of sen-
sation, when duly considered, gives us an equal view of both parts
of nature, the Corporeal and Spiritual. For whilst I know, by seeing
or hearing, etc. that there is some Corporeal Being without me, the
object of that sensation, I do more certainly know, that there is
some Spiritual Being within me, that sees and hears. This I must be
convinced cannot be the action of bare insensible matter; nor ever
could be without an immaterial thinking Being.
Locke Hum II, 23, §15, pp. 305-306