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Of the sorts of Substances.       §6. Whatever therefore be the secret and abstract Nature of
Substance in general, all the Ideas we have of particular distinct sorts of
Substances, are nothing but several Combinations of simple Ideas, co-
existing in such, though unknown, Cause of their Union, as makes
the whole subsist of itself. ’Tis by such Combinations of simple
Ideas and nothing else, that we represent particular sorts of Sub -
stances to our selves; such are the Ideas we have of their several
species in our Minds; and such only do we, by their specifick
Names, signify to others, v.g. Man, Horse, Sun, Water, Iron, upon
hearing which Words, every one who understands the Language,
frames in his Mind a Combination of those several simple Ideas,
which he has usually observed, or fancied to exist together under
that denomination; all which he supposes to rest in, and be, as it
were, adherent to that unknown common Subject, which inheres
not in any thing else. Though in the mean time it be manifest, and
every one upon Enquiry into his own thoughts, will find that he has
no other Idea of any Substance, v.g. let it be Gold, Horse, Iron, Man,
Vitriol, Bread, but what he has barely of those sensible Qualities,
which he supposes to inhere, with a supposition of such a Substratum,
as gives as it were a support to those Qualities, or simple Ideas,
which he has observed to exist united together. Thus the Idea of
the Sun, What is it, but an aggregate of those several simple Ideas,
Bright, Hot, Roundish, having a constant regular motion, at a
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certain distance from us, and, perhaps, some other: as he who
thinks and discourses of the Sun, has been more or less accurate, in
observing those sensible Qualities, Ideas, or Properties, which are
in that thing, which he calls the Sun.
Locke Hum II, 23, §6, pp. 298-299