— 294 —
Several Words seeming to signify Action, signify but the Effect.       §11. Power being the Source from whence all Action proceeds, the
Substances wherein these Powers are, when they exert this Power
into Act, are called Causes ; and the Substances which thereupon are
produced, or the simple Ideas which are introduced into any subject
by the exerting of that Power, are called Effects. The efficacy
whereby the new Substance or Idea is produced, is called, in the
subject exerting that Power, Action; but in the subject, wherein any
simple Idea is changed or produced, it is called Passion: Which
efficacy however various, and the effects almost infinite; yet we
can, I think, conceive it, in intellectual Agents, to be nothing else
but Modes of Thinking, and Willing; in corporeal Agents, nothing
else but Modifications of Motion. I say, I think we cannot conceive
it to be any other but these two: For whatever sort of Action,
besides these, produces any effects, I confess my self to have no
Notion, nor Idea of, and so it is quite remote from my Thoughts,
Apprehensions, and Knowledge; and as much in the dark to me as
five other Senses, or as the Ideas of Colours to a blind Man: And
therefore many words, which seem to express some Action, signify nothing
of the Action, or Modus Operandi at all, but barely the effect, with some
circumstances of the Subject wrought on, or Cause operating; v.g.
Creation, Annihilation, contain in them no Idea of the Action or
Manner, whereby they are produced, but barely of the Cause, and
the thing done. And when a Country-man says, the Cold freezes
Water, though the word Freezing seems to import some Action,
yet truly it signifies nothing, but the effect, viz. that Water, that
was before fluid, is become hard and consistent, without containing
any Idea of the Action whereby it is done.
Locke Hum II, 22, §11, p. 294