— 258 —
Happiness what.       §42. Happiness then in its full extent is the utmost Pleasure we
are capable of, and Misery the utmost Pain: And the lowest degree
of what can be called Happiness, is so much ease from all Pain, and
so much present Pleasure, as without which any one cannot be
content. Now because Pleasure and Pain are produced in us, by the
— 259 —
operation of certain Objects, either on our Minds or our Bodies;
and in different degrees: therefore what has an aptness to produce
Pleasure in us, is that we call Good, and what is apt to produce Pain
in us, we call Evil, for no other reason, but for its aptness to pro-
duce Pleasure and Pain in us, wherein consists our Happiness and
Misery. Farther, though what is apt to produce any degree of
Pleasure, be in it self good; and what is apt to produce any degree of
Pain, be evil; yet it often happens, that we do not call it so, when it
comes in competition with a greater of its sort; because when they
come in competition the degrees also of Pleasure and Pain have
justly a preference. So that if we will rightly estimate what we call
Good and Evil, we shall find it lies much in comparison: For the
cause of every less degree of Pain, as well as every greater degree of
Pleasure has the nature of good, and vice versâ.
Locke Hum II, 21, §42, pp. 258-259