— 243 —
Liberty belongs not to the Will.       §20. The attributing to Faculties, that which belonged not to
them, has given occasion to this way of talking: but the introduc-
ing into Discourses concerning the Mind with the name of Faculties,
a Notion of their operating, has, I suppose, as little advanced our
Knowledge in that part of our selves, as the great use and mention
of the like invention of Faculties, in the operations of the Body, has
helped us in the knowledge of Physick. Not that I deny there are
Faculties both in the Body and Mind: they both of them have their
powers of Operating, else neither the one nor the other could
operate. For nothing can operate, that is not able to operate; and
that is not able to operate, that has no power to operate. Nor do I
deny, that those Words, and the like, are to have their place in the
common use of Languages, that have made them currant. It looks
like too much affectation wholly to lay them by: and Philosophy it
self, though it likes not a gaudy dress, yet when it appears in
publick, must have so much Complacency, as to be cloathed in the
ordinary Fashion and Language of the Country, so far as it can
consist with Truth and Perspicuity. But the fault has been, that
Faculties have been spoken of, and represented, as so many
distinct Agents. For it being asked, what it was that digested
the Meat in our Stomachs? It was a ready, and very satisfactory
Answer, to say, That it was the digestive Faculty. What was it that
made any thing come out of the Body? The expulsive Faculty. What
moved? The Motive Faculty: And so in the Mind, the intellectual
— 244 —
Faculty, or the Understanding, understood; and the elective Faculty,
or the Will, willed or commanded: which is in short to say, That the
ability to digest, digested; and the ability to move, moved; and the
ability to understand, understood. For Faculty, Ability, and Power,
I think, are but different names of the same things: Which ways
of speaking, when put into more intelligible Words, will, I think,
amount to thus much; That Digestion is performed by something
that is able to digest; Motion by something able to move; and
Understanding by something able to understand. And in truth it
would be very strange, if it should be otherwise; as strange as it
would be for a Man to be free without being able to be free.
Locke Hum II, 21, §20, pp. 243-244