— 239 —
Voluntary opposed to involuntary, not to Necessary.       §11. We have instances enough, and often more than enough in
our own Bodies. A Man’s Heart beats, and the Blood circulates,
which ’tis not in his Power by any Thought or Volition to stop; and
therefore in respect of these Motions, where rest depends not on his
choice, nor would follow the determination of his Mind, if it should
preferr it, he is not a free Agent. Convulsive Motions agitate his
Legs, so that though he wills it never so much, he cannot by any
power of his Mind stop their Motion, (as in that odd Disease called
Chorea Sancti Viti,) but he is perpetually dancing: He is not at
Liberty in this Action, but under as much Necessity of moving, as a
Stone that falls, or a Tennis-ball struck with a Racket. On the other
side, a Palsie or the Stocks hinder his Legs from obeying the de-
termination of his Mind, if it would thereby transferr his Body to
another Place. In all these there is want of Freedom, though the
sitting still even of a Paralytick, whilst he preferrs it to a removal,
is truly voluntary. Voluntary then is not opposed to Necessary; but to
Involuntary. For a Man may preferr what he can do, to what he
cannot do; the State he is in, to its absence or change, though
Necessity has made it in it self unalterable.
Locke Hum II, 21, §11, p. 239