— 237 —
Liberty what.       §8. All the Actions, that we have any Idea of, reducing them-
selves, as has been said, to these two, viz. Thinking and Motion, so
far as a Man has a power to think, or not to think; to move, or not
to move, according to the preference or direction of his own mind,
so far is a Man Free. Where-ever any performance or forbearance are
not equally in a Man’s power; where-ever doing or not doing, will
not equally follow upon the preference of his mind directing it,
there he is not Free, though perhaps the Action may be voluntary.
So that the Idea of Liberty, is the Idea of a Power in any Agent to do
or forbear any particular Action, according to the determination or
thought of the mind, whereby either of them is preferr’d to the
other; where either of them is not in the Power of the Agent to be
— 238 —
produced by him according to his Volition here he is not at Liberty,
that Agent is under Necessity. So that Liberty cannot be, where there is
no Thought, no Volition, no Will; but there may be Thought, there
may be Will, there may be Volition, where there is no Liberty. A little
Consideration of an obvious instance or two may make this clear.
Locke Hum II, 21, §8, pp. 237-238