— 231 —
What Passions all Men have.       §14. These two last, Envy and Anger, not being caused by Pain
and Pleasure simply in themselves, but having in them some mixed
Considerations of our selves and others, are not therefore to be
found in all Men, because those other parts of valuing their Merits,
— 232 —
or intending Revenge, is wanting in them: But all the rest termina-
ted purely in Pain and Pleasure, are, I think, to be found in all Men.
For we love, desire, rejoice, and hope, only in respect of Pleasure; we
hate, fear, and grieve only in respect of Pain ultimately: In fine all
these Passions are moved by things, only as they appear to be the
Causes of Pleasure and Pain, or to have Pleasure or Pain some way or
other annexed to them. Thus we extend our Hatred usually to the
subject, (at least if a sensible or voluntary Agent,) which has pro-
duced Pain in us, because the fear it leaves is a constant pain: But
we do not so constantly love what has done us good; because
Pleasure operates not so strongly on us, as Pain; and because we
are not so ready to have hope, it will do so again. But this by the
bye.
Locke Hum II, 20, §14, pp. 231-232